The first step in the manufacturing of liquid detergents is the selection of raw materials. Raw materials are selected on the basis of several factors, such as human and environmental safety, cost, compatibility with other ingredients and the form and he specific properties desired in the final product. While the actual production processes may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, some processes and techniques are common for all.
For manufacturing liquid detergent, both the batch as well as continuous blending processes is used. Both batch and continuous blending processes are used to manufacture liquid and gel cleaning products. Stabilizers may be added during manufacturing to ensure the uniformity and stability of the finished product.
In a typical continuous process, dry and liquid ingredients are added and blended to a uniform mixture using in-line or static mixers.
Recently, more concentrated liquid products have been introduced and a technique for developing these products is through the use of new high-energy mixing processes in combination with stabilizing agents.
To make liquid detergent, the dry powder is simply mixed back in with a solution consisting of chemicals and water, called as "solubilizers." These chemicals help the water and detergent to blend together more evenly. The amount of light reflected, in comparison to the amount reflected by a sample of the original fabric, is a measure of the degree of cleanliness. A reflection rate of 98 % is considered as quite good and shows that the detergent has cleaned properly.
Manufacture Process - Stages Involved -
The different stages involved in soap manufacturing include -
- Soap premix manufacture - Liquid detergents contain a
combination of soap and synthetic surfactants. These are made first as a
premix, after which other ingredients are blended into it. This stage
simply consists of neutralizing fatty acids with either caustic soda
(NaOH) or potassium hydroxide.
- Ingredient mixing - All ingredients except the enzymes are
added and mixed at a high temperature. The ingredients used in the
manufacturing of liquid detergents are usually sodium tripolyphosphate,
caustic soda, sulphonic acid, perfume and water.
- Enzyme addition - In this stage, the mixture is cooled and milled, and the enzymes are added in powder form.