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Glossary

A B C D E F G H J L M N O P R S T U Z


[A]

Amphipathic surfactant
A surfactant having both lyophobic and lyophilic groups (properties) in the same molecule.

Amphoteric Surfactant
A surfactant molecule in which the ionic character of the polar group depends on the pH of solution.

Anionic Surfactant
A surfactant molecule, which can dissociate to yield a surfactant ion with a negatively charged polar group.

Abrasive cleaner
A cleaner, which comes in powder as well as liquid form and contains a kind of built-in elbow grease that helps to cut down on the hard rubbing required to remove soil. Abrasive cleaners are designed to remove relatively heavy amounts of soil that are often found in small areas.

Acid
An ingredient, which neutralizes or corrects the alkalinity of other ingredients. Some specialty cleaners require extra acidity to get rid of mineral build-up.

Active Ingredient
Active ingredient is an ingredients in a product, which is responsible for its function.

Algaecide
A product, which destroys algae.

Alkali
It is an ingredient that neutralizes or adjusts, the acidity of other ingredients, such as it makes the surfactants and builders more efficient; increases alkalinity that helps in removing acidic, fatty and oily soils. Detergents have found to be more effective when they are alkaline.

Antibacterial
A product that destroys and kills bacteria.

Antimicrobial
A product, which destroys or inhibits the growth of microorganisms, which cause diseases or odor.

Antiredeposition Agent
Antiredoposition agent is a substance, which prevents soil from resettling after removal during washing.

Anti-microbial Soap
A soap (i.e., detergent) that contains an antiseptic agent.

Antiseptic
An antiseptic is a germicide, which is used on skin or living tissue for the purpose of destroying or inhibiting the microorganisms. Some examples of antiseptics include - alcohols, chlorhexidine, chlorine, hexachlorophene, iodine, chloroxylenol (PCMX), quaternary ammonium compounds, and triclosan.

Aloe Vera
A Caribbean aloe yielding a gelatinous substance. Aloe Vera has found uses in a variety of cosmetic products including creams, moisturizers, and sunscreens, refreshing lotions and tonics.

Avocado Oil
Oil obtained from the pulp of fruits of the avocado tree. These fruits have a green to dark-purple skin, a fatty flesh rich in fat, protein, and vitamins A and B, and a single hard seed. The oil is used as a massage oil, in creams, lotions and hair products. The oil is also used in making soap products.

[B]

Bactericide
A product that destroys bacteria.

Bleach
Bleach is produced by reacting chlorine into a dilute sodium hydroxide solution and is used in cleaning process to whiten, brighten and remove stains. Bleaches help in converting the soils into colorless, soluble particles, which can be removed by detergents and carried away in the wash water. Bleaches come in two types, viz. Chlorine bleach and oxygen bleach. Liquid chlorine bleach (generally in a sodium hypochlorite solution) can also disinfect and deodorize fabrics. Oxygen (color-safe) bleach is gentler and works safely on almost all types of fabrics.

Booster
A product that improves the soil and stain removal, buffering, brightening and water softening performance of detergents. Boosters are used along with detergents to improve the wash performance.

Baking Soda
Also known as sodium bicarbonate, or bicarbonate of soda, baking soda is a readily available and inexpensive household product that is a highly effective tool for combating odors, cleaning and sanitizing.

[C]

Cationic Surfactant
A surfactant molecule, which can dissociate to yield a surfactant ion with a positively charged polar group.

Corrosion inhibitor
A product that protects metal machine parts and finishes, metal utensils and china patterns.

Castor Oil
Pale in color, castor oil (Ricinus communis) is extracted from castor oil beans, the seeds of the castor-oil plant. Castor oil, when used in cosmetics, functions as a humectant and attracts and retains moisture to the skin. It is also used as a thickener and an emollient. Castor oil has found uses as a laxative and in cosmetic products.

Cocoa Butter
Cocoa butter (Theobroma cacao) is a pale yellow fat, which is obtained from dried and naturally fermented cocoa beans. Cocoa powder extracted from cocoa butter is used in cosmetics industry as an ointment base, emollient, skin softener and protectant.

Colorants
Colorant is an ingredient that can be used to alter the color of a product. Colorants can be either a dye or a pigment and are available as both natural and synthetic dyes and pigments.

[D]

Detergent

A surfactant that provides cleaning properties in dilute solutions. As commercial cleaning products, detergents are formulations that contain a variety of chemical components besides surfactants.

Dusting Product
A product that attracts, picks up and retains the light dust and soil on cleaning fabrics.

Disinfectant
Disinfectant is a chemical agent, which is used on inanimate objects (e.g., floors, walls, sinks) to destroy and kill virtually all recognized pathogenic microorganisms.

Dyes
A dye is a colorant, which can transfer color by dissolving in a solution. Used in foods, drugs and cosmetics, most of the dyes are synthetic, however some may be natural.

[E]

Enzyme pre-soak

Enzyme pre-soak is a product, which is used for soaking items before washing to get rid of difficult stains and soils. When added to the washing water, enzyme pre-soaks enhance cleaning power.

Emollient
A product that has a soothing or softening effect.

Emulsion
An emulsion is a mixture of two generally un-mixable liquids in which one liquid is dispersed in the other as very fine droplets. Variety of synthetic food products is emulsions. An emulsion can be obtained by vigorous shaking although emulsifying agents are often used to help form the emulsion, and stabilizing agents are used to help in maintain it and keeping it from separating. Various cosmetic products are also emulsions - some are oil-in-water emulsions, while others are water-in-oil emulsions.

Essential Oils
Essential oils are pure plant distillates and extracts that are derived from flowers, leaves, stems, berries, rinds, resins, or roots of plants. Used in cosmetic and soap products, essential oils have long been known for their many healing qualities.

[F]

Fabric softener

A product that is added to the final rinse or dryer to make fabrics fluffier and softer; reduces static cling, wrinkling and drying time; and imparts a pleasing fragrance and make ironing easier.

Film remover
A product, which removes the build-up of hard water film and cloudiness from dishes and the interior of dishwasher. Film removers are used instead of an automatic dishwasher detergent in a separate cycle or along with the detergent.

Fluorescent whitening agent
A substance that attaches to clothes to produce a whitening or brightening effect when exposed to daylight.

Formulant
An ingredient that adds viscosity, color, smell etc.

Fragrance
It is an ingredient, which provides pleasant smell and odor to the clothes and fabrics.

Fungicide
A product that destroys fungi.

Furniture Cleaner and/or polisher
The major ingredients in furniture cleaner and/or polisher include silicone fluids and a wax, generally a so-called microcrystalline wax.. These cleaners or polishers can be formulated and developed as water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions.

Fatty Acids
Fatty acid is a natural organic compound in which each molecule is consists of a carboxyl group (oxygen, carbon and hydrogen) that is attached to a chain of carbon atoms with their associated hydrogen atoms.

Fragrance Oil
Fragrance oil is a blend of synthetic and/or natural ingredients that create a specific fragrance.

[G]

Glass Cleaner

A substance that contains surfactants to loosen soil, solvents to dissolve oily soil, and water as the medium to carry solvents and surfactants. Opaque creamy glass cleaners are made using surfactants and solvents and contain colloidal clays and silica that absorb soil and dry after spreading.

Germicide
Germicide is an agent, which kills and destroys microorganisms, especially pathogenic organisms.

Glycerin
Also known as glycerol, glycerin is a colorless sweet viscous liquid that is derived from vegetable fats. It is a by-product of the soap-making process that separates glycerin from the fatty acids in the whole oil. The naturally occurring glycerin remains in handmade soaps, but is generally removed from commercial soaps Glycerin has found a variety of uses in foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. It is used in cosmetic products because of its emollient and humectant characteristics.

[H]

Hard Water Mineral Remover

Water hardness can be caused due to the presence of dissolved mineral salts, like calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese. When the hard water evaporates, a mineral deposit is left behind that can build up over time. Hard water mineral removers are developed to remove such deposits.

Hydrotrope
A substance, which prevents the liquid products from separating into layers so as to ensure product homogeneity.

Hand Hygiene
A general term, which applies to hand washing, antiseptic hand wash, antiseptic hand rub, and surgical hand antisepsis.

Hypersensitivity
An immune reaction (or allergy) in which the body shows an exaggerated response to a particular antigen.

Humectant
It is a substance that is added to another to help it retain moisture.

[J]

Jojoba Oil
Jajoba oil (Simmondsia chinensis) is an emollient, which is similar to natural human oil secretions, antioxidant.

[L]

Lime and rust remover
A product, which removes deposits of lime and/or rust from the inner parts of dishwasher. This product is used when no dishes or other dishwasher products are present.

Lye
Lye is a common term used for a caustic alkali used in soap making. The term can be used to refer either potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide.

[M]

Micelle
Micelle is an aggregate of ions or surfactant molecules in solution. Such aggregates develop spontaneously at or above a surfactant concentration known as the critical micelle concentration.

Mineral Oil
A mineral oil is usually light hydrocarbon oil, especially a distillate of petroleum. Mineral oil is used in pharmaceutical industry as a laxative.

[N]

Nonionic Surfactant
A surfactant molecule whose polar group is not electrically charged.

Non-abrasive, all-purpose cleaner
Non-abrasive, all purpose cleaners can be used to clean a variety of non-porous surfaces. These cleaners are developed as powders, which can be dissolved to the proper strength and as liquids, which can be diluted or used in full strength.

[O]

Opacifier
It is an ingredient that reduces the transparency and makes the product opaque.

Oven Cleaner
A cleaning product designed to clean ovens. Strong ingredients are necessary in these cleaners to remove burned-on soils in a cold oven. A strong alkali, such as sodium hydroxide (lye), is the principal agent in the oven cleaning products. Another type of oven cleaners use a combination of less alkaline salts plus oven heat to help remove soil. Surfactants are also used to help penetrate soil and wet the surface.

Oven cleaners are designed and formulated to be as thick as possible so as to allow the product to cling to the soiled and greasy, vertical oven surfaces.

Oxygen Bleach
A substance that can be combined with bleach activator to enhance cleaning performance in lower water temperatures.

Oatmeal
Oatmeal is a ground grain that is derived from an annual grass (Avena sativa). It is used in soaps and cosmetic product soaps because of its soothing qualities.

Olive Oil
Olive oil is pure oil, which is obtained from the fruits of olive tree. It is one of the finest edible oils that can be consumed without processing or refining. The oil is used in making soaps, cosmetics, and textiles.

[P]

Prewash Soil and Stain Remover
A product, which is used to pre-treat heavily soiled and stained garments, especially those made from synthetic fibers.

Processing Aid
A substance that provides proper pour or flow, solubility, viscosity, stability, uniform density and assists in manufacturing.

Palm Oil
Palm oil is obtained from the fruits of a palm tree, which is used in soap making to create a hard and long lasting bar of soap, which is mild and cleanses well. Palm oil has similar properties to tallow in soaps.

Paraffin
Paraffin is a white or colorless petroleum-derived solid wax, which is often used in making candles and cosmetic products. This is the wax, which is generally found in the grocery store and used to seal canning jars.

Potassium Hydroxide
Also known as potash, potassium hydroxide is used as a caustic alkali in soft and liquid soaps. It is obtained by filtering water through hardwood ashes.

[R]

Rinse Agent

Rinse agent is a product used in addition to the automatic dishwasher detergent to reduce the surface tension, thereby improving the draining of water from dishes and utensils. Better draining minimizes filming and spotting and enhances drying.

[S]

Soap
A surface-active fatty acid salt that contains a minimum of eight carbon atoms.

Surfactant
Also known as surface-active agent, a surfactant is a substance, which reduces the surface or interfacial tension of the medium in which it is dissolved.

Shower Cleaner
Shower cleaner is a product that prevents build up of soap scum, hard water deposits and mildew stains without rinsing, wiping or scrubbing.

Shower cleaners contain surfactants that help in cleaning and prevent the soap scum and hard water deposits. Some shower cleaners contain builders or chelates, and alcohol or solvents that assist in continual cleaning process. Some also contain anti-microbial agents to destroy germs, including mould and mildew.

Suds Control Agent
Suds control agent is an ingredient that ensures optimum sudsing (foaming) level required for a cleaning job.

Suds Stabilizer
An ingredient, which maintains high sudsing where suds level is a major indicator of cleaning power.

Suds Suppressor
A substance that controls sudsing where suds may interfere with cleaning action.

SAP Value
SAP value is saponification value, which is the amount of potassium hydroxide in milligrams that is required to saponify 1 gram of oil.

Saponaceous
Exhibiting the characteristics of, or having the properties of soap.

Saponification
A process or reaction of combining a base (fat) with an alkali (sodium hydroxide), which is used to produce a salt (soap) and a free alcohol (glycerin).

Sea Salt
Sea salt is produced by the evaporation of seawater either by solar or kiln drying.

Seize
The unexpected thickening and uneven hardening of the mixture of soap mixture during processing. It usually occurs while adding synthetic fragrance oils to the mixture.

Shea Butter
Shea butter is used as a as a base ingredient or as an emollient in handmade soaps and skin care products. The substance has a high content of unsaponifiables that contribute to its moisturizing properties.

Soap

A simple cleansing agent, soap is a sodium salt that results from the combination of oils and fats with an alkali.
Soap Casting

The method of creating handcrafted soaps using melt and pour soap base.

Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate is baking soda, which is white, crystalline in appearance and is used in bath preparations as a water softener.

Sodium Cocoate
The sodium salt of coconut oil, sodium cocoate is a saponified coconut oil.

Sodium Hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a strong alkaline compound, used to produce hard or bar soaps.

Sodium Palmate
The sodium salt of palm oil, sodium palmate is a saponified palm oil.

Sodium Stearate
The sodium salt of stearic acid, sodium stearate is a saponified stearic acid.

Sodium Tallowate
The sodium salt of tallow, the sodium tallowate is saponified tallow.

Solvent Extraction
A technique of separating oils from their base using a liquid in which the oil is soluble. The oil is then distilled and the solvent is evaporated thereby leaving the oil.

Soybean Oil
A primary ingredient in vegetable shortening, soybean oil is obtained from soybeans.

Stearic Acid
Stearic acid is obtained from animal and vegetable fats and is used in soaps, candles and other products.

Sunflower Seed Oil
Used as an emolient, sunflower seed oil contains vitamin E and is obtained from the seeds of sunflower oil.

Superfatted
The addition of extra oils or butters, which remain unsaponified within the finished soap. These excess oils and butters contribute to the moisturizing characteristics of the soap.

Synthetic
Artificially produced, not of natural origin.

[T]

Toilet Bowl Cleaner

A cleaning product that helps maintain a clean and pleasant smelling toilet bowl by sticking to the sides of the toilet bowl, releasing active ingredients into the bowl with every flush of the toilet. Surfactants in addition with oxidants or acids are the principle ingredients for soil removal. The presence of acids or sequestrants facilitates the removal of stains that is caused due to the hard water deposits and iron. Specific organic stains are cleaned and removed by oxidizing agents that are present in some products.

Tub, Tile and/or Sink Cleaner
A product, which clean and removes not only the normal soils found on kitchen and bathroom surfaces, but also hard water deposits, soap scum, rust stains and discolorations due to the mould growth that is common to these areas. These cleaners are formulated using surfactants to penetrate and loosen soil. In addition, they may also contain specific solvents and special sequestering agents to dissolve and keep calcium (hardness) deposits, soap scum and metal discolorations in the solution.

Triglycerides
Triglyceride is a particular molecular structure, which is found in vegetable and animal vegetable oils. A triglyceride is made up of three fatty acid molecule chains that are connected to one glycerin molecule.

[U]

Ultrasonic Cleaner

An instrument that uses waves of acoustic energy (a procedure known as "cavitation") to loosen and break up debris on instruments.

[Z]

Zwitterionic Surfactant
A surfactant molecule, which contains both negatively as well as positively, charged groups.









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